Resource-Based View: Strategy for Competitive Advantage

Resource-Based View: Strategy for Competitive Advantage

The resource-based framework, pivotal in strategic management, focuses on a company’s internal resources as the key to gaining and sustaining a competitive advantage. This approach, significantly shaped by Jay Barney’s 1991 article “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage,” emphasizes the strategic importance of a firm’s unique assets, skills, and capabilities.

1. Identifying Key Resources

The first step in applying the resource-based framework is identifying the company’s unique resources. These can be tangible assets like technology and capital, or intangible ones like brand reputation, patents, or specialized expertise. Understanding what sets these resources apart is crucial.

2. Evaluating Resource Value

Not all resources are created equal. The resource-based framework advises evaluating each resource to determine its potential to provide a competitive advantage. Resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable, and non-substitutable (VRIN) hold the most strategic value. The VRIN framework and VRIO analysis provide the tools for discovering, understanding, and protecting the quality and usefulness of resources that will allow the company to stand out among its competitors and stay relevant for the foreseeable future.

3. Exploiting Resources Strategically

Once key resources are identified and evaluated, the next step is to leverage them effectively. This might involve developing new products, enhancing service offerings, or entering new markets. The goal is to use these resources in ways that competitors cannot easily replicate.

4. Sustaining Advantage Through Resource Development

Sustainable competitive advantage requires not just identifying and using resources but also continually developing them. This involves investing in innovation, improving processes, and nurturing talent to ensure resources remain valuable and unique over time.


The resource-based framework offers a powerful perspective for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. By focusing on unique internal resources and continuously developing them, companies can create a strategic edge that is difficult for competitors to imitate or overcome.